Eleusis / Elefsina
The city of Eleusis (the Greek word or Eleusis is Elefsina), is an industrial port suburb of Athens. A simple trip from the center of Athens, the Sacred Way once led here to the most popular religious cults in the Ancient World. It is the site of the Eleusinian Mysteries.
At the heart of the Eleusis archaeological site contains the hall where initiates underwent their initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries but it is also the site of the entrance to the Underworld (the Plutonium). Here also is the well that is central to the ancient Greek mythology of the cult of Demeter.
Together the archaeological remains of Eleusis and the rich mythology surrounding the Eleusinian mysteries makes the modern town of Eleusis a wonderful day trip from central Athens, only 11 miles away/ It is also a fantastic first stop along the Sacred way to other important religious centers of ancient Greece such as Delphi and the great city-states of the Peloponnese.
The Eleusinian Mysteries
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The Eleusian mysteries were the most sacred of all Ancient Greek mysteries and were practiced for over a thousand years. They focus upon the cult of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and the wife of Zeus, and their daughter Persephone. The Homeric Hymn to Artemis suggests that the goddess Demeter created the agricultural rituals in this fertile area of Attica.
Greek mythology tells us that Demeter, the goddess of agriculture, chose the Thirasian Plain around Athens, and Eleusis in particular, as her Sanctuary because of its fertility.
These secret religious rites of ancient Greece are known as ‘mysteries’ because the initiates were sworn to secrecy to never speak about what they had undergone or the knowledge they had gained. We do know that the Sacred Rites of Eleusis focussed upon removing the fear of death and the Afterlife from its adherents, and offering initiates a happier life after their death.
Whilst a temple dedicated to the goddess Demeter has existed at the Panhellenic Sanctuary of Eleusis since the 15th century BCE, the Eleusinian mysteries were held from about the 6th century BCE (Athens had annexed the area a century earlier).
The Mysteries were enacted twice a year; the Lesser Mysteries took place in Spring. Those who had been purified during the rituals of the Lesser Eleusinian Mysteries could then partake in the Greater Mysteries in September.
These rites began during the Mycenean era and persisted for more than 2000 years and corresponded with the sowing and reaping of the agricultural annual cycle.
Mythology of Eleusis
The secret religious and agricultural rituals of Eleusis honored the goddess Demeter and her daughter by Zeus, Persephone. More accurately, they were constructed around the myth of the King of the Underworld, Pluto or Hades, his abduction of Persephone, and Demeter’s journey to be reunited with her daughter.
Pluto fell in love with Persephone (also called Kore), and in abducting her to the Underworld, she died. Demeter searched the world for her daughter. Learning Persephone was in the Underworld, she begged Zeus to get Pluto to give Persephone back to her.
According to the laws of the Underworld, Persephone would be doomed to remain with Hades for all eternity if she ate while there. She ate seeds from the persimmon and was doomed to spend each winter in the Underworld for eternity.
Demeter had settled at Eleusis until Persephone’s return to the world of the living. The Sanctuary includes the Well that Demeter sat upon, disguised as an old woman.
The Sacred Way
The ancient Athenians created a mostly paved road from the center of Athens to Eleusis. Beginning at the Agora of Athens, the Sacred Way passed through the central gates of the city of Athens, the Kerameikos Cemetary, and led to Eleusis where it ended in the Sanctuary of Demeter.
Two days before the greater Mysteries were performed at the autumn equinox, sacred objects were carried by youths on horseback from Athens to the Sanctuary of Eleusis.
Thousands of people made the journey along the Sacred Way from Athens to be initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. The pilgrimage symbolised the journey of Demeter and Persephone
But the Sacred Way was more than just a road to travel upon to receive the Mysteries of Demeter, it is also a symbol of the journey to the Underworld that Ancient Greeks believed everyone took at the end of the life.
Greater Propylaea and the Lesser Propylaea
When you enter the archaeological site you first encounter the Roman entrance, the Greater Propylaea (pictured above), and then see the original Propylaea, known as the Lesser Propylaea.
The Greater Propylaea is thought to have been ordered built by the Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius. There is speculation that it may have been the earlier Emperor, Hadrian, that first ordered the construction.
The Lesser Propylaea was the Greek entrance to the Sanctuary constructed in 54 BCE.
Telesterion – the Initiation Hall
The most significant building in the archaeological zone is the Telesterion. A Telesterion is a Hall of Initiation. used for the initiation into the Elusinian Mysteries. But not just any initiation hall – it was built by Iktinos, the architect who built the Parthenon, and at the time it was the largest building in all of Ancient Greece.
The first Telesterion was replaced by this much larger structure once the rites became famous across the Hellenic world. It was constructed in 435 – 421 BCE. It was once part of the Temple of Demeter.
The rituals of the Eleusinian Mysteries involved fasting, purification, ritual animal sacrifice, and washing. The Telesterion was the symbolic entrance to the Underworld where initiates descended and, after the rituals in the Telesterion, emerged.
The rituals within the Telesterion were the climax and most secret part of the initiation into the cult of Demeter and Persephone. It was overseen by a hierarchy of priestesses and initiates were likely part of a sacred drama.
As they emerged from the Telesterion, the initiates of the Eleusinian Mysteries were symbolically bringing life out of death.
In Ancient times, Greeks believed that tombs and caves were entrances to the Underworld. The Underworld was called both Pluto and Hades after the King of the Underworld.
The Plutonium is a cave at the archaeological site and you will find offerings of persimmons at the entrance to the Underworld. Persimmons are known as the “Divine fruit” in Greece because the the three Persimmon seeds Persephone ate while in Hades.
Visiting the City of Elefsina
Visiting the archaeological site of Eleusis is especially wonderful in 2021 because Elefsina has been declared by the European Union to be the 2021 European Capital of Culture. There will be public processions along the sacred way from the ancient Athens cemetery of Kerameikos to Elefsina.
The people of Eleusis live squeezed along the edges of one of the most sacred cities of Ancient Greece, with homes and industrial development next to the ancient site. They live beside the largest oil refinery in Greece and the bay of Eleusis is known as the Bay of Shipwrecks.
There is a lovely walk along the port and cafes, restaurants and simple tavernas line the waterfront.
The easiest way to get to Elefsina is by Uber – it’s a 20 minute drive.
Alternatively, the A16 bus takes 44 minutes and leaves from Ktel Attikis. You can find the timetable here
Links and Further Information
- There are so many things to do in Greece. See all of the best things to do in Greece from Get Your Guide here
- If you love archeological sites, you must read my comprehensive lists of the Best Ancient Ruins in Greece and the Best Athens Ruins.
- Is the Acropolis on your bucket list? Read my post covering Everything You Need to Know About Visiting the Acropolis and for where to stay near the Acropolis, see my guide to the Best Athens Hotels Near the Acropolis.
- For the must-see Ancient Akrotiri Minoan city on Santorini, see my blog post here
- If you’re planning a trip to Greece, check out my Greek posts here
- And for the things you need to know before you book your trip to Santorini, including the best time to visit Santorini, see my travel guide here
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